La sécheresse pourrait se transformer en aridité dans plusieurs régions de France

Le désert du Namib, dans le sud-ouest de la Namibie. © Galyna Andrushko, Adobe Stock

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the waves of heat wave continue, while many records of temperature and drought they were reached this summer of 2022 throughout Europe. According to POTnineteen of the hottest years have occurred since 2000, excluding 1998. The year 2020 is tied with 2016 for the hottest year on record since records began in 1880.” The year 2022 could well be added to this list of the hottest years on record.

But climate change is not just about temperature. Cast iron, an alloy of iron and carbon.
There is still a bit more carbon in the…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/9/0/2906dda4fe_108336_fonte-theiere. jpg” data- url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-fonte-16520/” data-more=”Read more”>sources and When this collapse refers to coherent rocks, we can also speak of a rockfall.
The result of this…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/f/6/7/f678fd3677_50035322_eboulement-cmic-blog-cc-nc-2.jpg ” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planet/definitions/sustainable-development-landfall-6515/” data-more=”Read More”>collapses des When the global climate cools, glaciers can form on the continents. This accumulation of continental ice leads to a decrease in…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/f/0/f/f0f3a0cd09_83806_glacier.jpg” data-url = “https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/neige-glacier-15418/” data-more=”Read more”>glaciers, violent fires, intense droughts… So many extreme events that multiply and promise to be more and more frequent. How can life survive this? The researchers suggest drawing inspiration from places on Earth that have already adapted to climates hot and dry. In a study in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolutionthey were interested in dryland ecosystems and their functioning.

“More than a third of the Earth’s land surface is dry land”

If the idea might make you smile for the time being, start from a perfectly valid observation: while “more than a third of the Earth’s land surface is arid land”, explains the study barrenness it could affect many more places by the year 2100. According to a model established by the researchers, some 17 million km² could be affected, equivalent to the area of ​​the United States and Brazil. The temperate zones, like France for example, will see less frequent rains, and this constantly, that is to say every year. Because, at the moment, we are going through intense droughts but, by definition, they do not last.

In the future, the drought it could become arid in several regions of France before the end of the century. “Our new knowledge can help improve our adaptive capacity to resist climatic extremes and reduce their impacts on nature and people”says Heather Throop, a co-author of the study and a professor at theArizona State University.

To assess these possible adaptations, the team analyzed the key processes that govern the arid ecosystems. In total, they identified a dozen of them that regulate in particular the distribution and growth of vegetation, but also the cycle of Generalities
Symbol: CAtomic number: 6Electrons per energy level: 2.4Atomic mass: 12,011 uMost stable isotopes: 12C stable with six…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/ images/ midioriginal/ 2/1/9/2198868bcb_69707_carbone.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/chimie-carbone-3873/” data-more=”Read more”>Coalthe energy balance and the decomposition of organic matter, nitrogenous matter, etc.
There are different families like:

organic matter, which constitutes living beings (animals or plants) or…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/e/7/0/e70ccaaf4a_91935_matiere. jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/matiere-matiere-15841/” data-more=”Read more”>materials dead.

“These dryland mechanisms are controlled by environmental factors, such as intense solar radiation, high temperatures, large bare areas between plants, and inconsistent water availability.”, adds H. Throop. So they decided to focus on the current temperate or humid zones, and especially their future. To do this, they modeled how dryland-specific mechanisms might play out elsewhere, depending on future climatic conditions.

Adaptation to aridity is possible

They then distinguished processes that get under way quickly, therefore, that could take place during droughts, and those that, on the contrary, require more than a decade of dry conditions. Among the short-term ones, they noted the decomposition of dead matter by heat. Physicists refer to heat as thermal energy. In the international system, therefore, it is measured in joules (J). Heat corresponds more precisely to a transfer…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/3/5/735709801b_92578_chaleur.jpg” data-url=” https ://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-heat-15898/” data-more=”Read more”>heat and the white light
The wavelengths of visible light range from approximately 380nm (violet) to 780nm (red). The visible spectrum is…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/b/6/9/b697a0c09f_85912_lumiere.jpg” data-url=”https:// news.google.com/science/definitions/physics-light-326/” data-more=”Read more”>light The Sun is the closest star to Earth, from which it is about 150 million kilometers away. The Sun is 8.5 kparsecs from the center of the Milky Way. In stellar classification, the sun is a G2-type star.
The mass…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/d/9/1d9cd1d45f_50034577_eruption.jpg” data-url=”https://news. google.com/sciences/definitions/univers-soleil-3727/” data-more=”Read more”>Sunspecific for arid lands. “Decomposition of dead matter is important in ecosystems because it releases nutrients for the growth of new plantsexplains H. Throop. Typically, in wet systems, this decomposition is caused by organisms such as bacteria They consume dead matter. In dry systems, the rules are different: we have much more influence from sunlight and high temperatures that break down materials on the surface. So instead of biology causing this decomposition, we have processes. The theories established by physics are applied within well-defined frameworks.
Physics…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/9/6/896f032c90_91933_physics-def.jpg” data-url=”https:// news .google.com/science/definitions/physics-physics-15839/” data-more=”Read more”>physical who directs it.

Redistribution of water by plants, via roots spreading into the ground, could also occur in the long term this time, but also a redistribution of vegetation. Then it would be more scarce, with plants capable of storing water and surviving against weak and infrequent rains. Furthermore, with an increasing influence of sunlight compared to temperate zonesresearchers predict an increase in This term encompasses a variety of very different species, whether they are prokaryotes (bacteria) or eukaryotes (yeasts, algae)….” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com / buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/7/5/1753fd009d_50035172_escherichia-coli-microorganismo-ars-wikimedia-03.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sante/definitions/biology-microorganism – 6183/” data-more=”Read more”>microorganisms forming continental crust it forms, as its name indicates, the continents. It is essentially from…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/d/1/7d1ca441ac_44707_def-epaisseur-croute-terrestre-usgs.jpg” data- url=”https://news.google.com/planete/definitions/structure-terre-terrestrial-crust-2491/” data-more=”Read more”>scabs Of surface.

“What is also clear is that some of these predicted changes will occur in regions with high human populations and thus significantly affect the well-being of society in those regions.concludes H. Throop. We will need continued research and monitoring of ecosystem functioning versus frequency and gravity increase in droughts and heat waves to improve our understanding of the processes Figuratively: sudden appearance of an idea, a social, economic or political fact.
The term emergence is used in many fields.
Physical
Out…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/e/f/4ef87a3a65_50036395_papillon-chrysalis-bernard-schmeltz.jpg” data-url=” https ://news.google.com/planete/definitions/zoologie-emergence-8743/” data-more=”Read more”>emergent underlying”.

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