Pression artérielle diastolique élevée: causes, symptômes et prévention

Presse Santé

Several factors contribute to high diastolic blood pressure. While some, such as obesity, can be controlled by a person, others cannot be prevented.

Doctors describe blood pressure using two numbers: systolic and diastolic. They present a reading with the systolic number appearing above the diastolic number. The systolic measures the pressure during the contraction of the heart, while the diastolic is the pressure between beats. People attach a lot of importance to the systolic value. However, every 10 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) increase in diastolic pressure in people ages 40 to 89 doubles the risk of heart disease or stroke.

Doctors define isolated diastolic hypertension, high diastolic blood pressure, above 80 mm Hg. in people with normal systolic blood pressure.
This article looks at the common causes of diastolic hypertension and the risks associated with it and how to prevent hypertension.

main causes

If a person has hypertension, they experience an increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, high diastolic blood pressure occurs in isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH). Doctors classify stage 1 HDI as diastolic blood pressure of 80-89 mm Hg. They classify stage 2 HDI as diastolic blood pressure greater than 90 mm Hg.

IHD is rare, accounting for less than 20% of cases of hypertension.

Doctors do not understand why an individual may develop diastolic hypertension. They suggest that narrowing of the arterioles is the cause, due to hormones in the body.

Common causes of isolated diastolic hypertension include:

– endocrine disorders
– renovascular disorders
– Sleep apnea

A study has shown the link between severe sleep apnea and diastolic hypertension.

However, potential and preventable causes of IHD also include:

– Obesity

Doctors generally associate high blood pressure with obesity. However, they also associate overweight and obesity with arterial hypertension with HDI.
To reduce the risk of IHD, a person can take steps to achieve a moderate weight through diet and exercise.
If you find it difficult to change your diet or increase your physical activity, a doctor may suggest other weight management options.

– Alcohol consumption

Some studies show that alcohol consumption contributes to the HDI.
To help prevent high blood pressure, be sure to have no more than two alcoholic drinks a day for men and no more than one alcoholic drink a day for women.

– Smoke

Studies link smoking with the HDI. For example, a study in China found that in people age 90 and older, current or past smoking increases diastolic blood pressure.

– Triglycerides

High levels of triglycerides, or blood fats, are another potential cause of IDH that doctors also associate with other health risks. When these blood fats are elevated, they lower “good” HDL cholesterol. If people have high levels of triglycerides in their blood and high “bad” LDL cholesterol, the risk of heart disease and stroke increases. It is possible to lower blood triglyceride levels by changing your diet. For example, a Mediterranean-style diet rich in fatty fish, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help lower blood triglycerides.

Risk factors for diastolic hypertension

There are certain risk factors for diastolic high blood pressure that one cannot control.

These include in particular:

– Age: Diastolic hypertension is common in people under 50 years of age. It is rare in older adults.
– Family history: Having relatives with hypertension increases the risk of IDH in an individual.
– Cardiovascular events: If an individual has suffered an incident that damaged the heart muscle, this increases their risk of HID.
– Diabetes: People with diabetes and high blood sugar levels are more likely to develop IHD.
– Hypothyroidism: About 30% of people with low thyroid hormone levels have IDH.
– Kidney disease: People with chronic kidney disease can also have IDH.
– Biological sex: In a large 2019 study of nearly 2.5 million participants, researchers found that the prevalence of the HDI was significantly higher in men (4.5% of the total population) than in women (2, two %).

health risks

If a person has normal systolic blood pressure, a drop in diastolic blood pressure can affect the regulation of blood flow in the brain and lead to a stroke. According to one study, researchers have associated HDI with increased blood pressure and an increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular events.
The HDI increases a person’s risk of several health problems, including the following

– heart disease
– cardiac crisis
– heart failure
– aneurysm
– atrial fibrillation
– Peripheral arterial disease

Symptoms of high diastolic blood pressure

High diastolic blood pressure often causes no noticeable symptoms. A large 2019 study found that many people were unaware they had HDIs. Of 2,351,035 participants, 3.2% had HDI. More than 86% received no treatment and only 10.3% of these people knew they had high blood pressure. The common belief that high blood pressure causes sweating, a flushed face, or feeling jittery is a myth.

However, a person should see a doctor urgently if they experience the following symptoms. These could indicate a serious complication of IHD, such as a heart attack or stroke:

– chest pain
– breathing difficulties
– Awesome
– sudden onset of weakness
– speech changes
– loss of consciousness

Prevention

Some people can prevent the onset of high diastolic blood pressure by avoiding tobacco, alcohol, lowering blood fats, and maintaining a moderate weight. In other cases, certain uncontrollable factors, such as biological sex, family history, and living with diabetes, may make a person unable to prevent high diastolic blood pressure.

* Presse Santé strives to transmit health knowledge in a language accessible to all. In NO CASE, the information provided can not replace the advice of a health professional.

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