It took twenty years to prove the existence ofand about forty for the . How long will it take to prove the existence of particles of or on the contrary demonstrate its non-existence?
Remember that the neutrino had been postulated by Born in 1900 in Vienna to a doctor and professor father…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/8/ 9/6 /8965347e36_50142150_pauli-1000.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/science/personalities/physics-wolfgang-pauli-924/” data-more=”Read more”>maintain the law of conservation of energy in certain nuclear decays that appeared to violate it. More il avait fallu pour cela admettre that the energy that semblait fires dans le néant était fait emportée par une particule sans masse, sans electric charge et interagissant si peu avec la matière à basse énergie qu’elle pouvait traverser 300 Terre sans s’ stop. We now know that there are in fact three types of neutrinos and that they have masses, albeit very small ones.
Dark matter particles are just as spooky, but paradoxically we need them to explain the existence ofand structures that bring them together in the form of clusters containing from a few hundred to a few thousand galaxies very approximately. It is under the effect of his field of that ordinary matter collapsed faster than it should have on its own. We know for various reasons that these dark matter particles do not resemble those we know on Earth and that they are produced in particular in collisions of at the LHC, although they are being tracked there.
However, although dark matter is one of the pillars ofmight not exist and the observations it reports might also be explained by modifying the Isaac Newton’s Celestial Mechanics observed that the sum of the forces acting on an object is proportional to its mass and its rate of acceleration. This eminent scientist gave his name to the unit of value of the international system: 1 N is the force necessary to give an object of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m / s² “Data-url =” https: // news .Google. com/science/definitions/physics-newton-360/” data-more=”Read definition”> . One wonders today if the first discoveries of galaxies that seem very primitive by the James-Webb, because observed as they were more than 13 billion years ago, they are not exactly .
For 13.8 billion years, the Universe has continued to evolve. Contrary to what our eyes tell us when we look at the sky, what makes it up is far from static. Physicists have observations at different ages of the Universe and carry out simulations in which they reproduce its formation and its evolution. It would seem that dark matter has played an important role from the beginning of the Universe to the formation of the large structures that are observed today. © CEA Research
A new surprise in this sense can be pointing to the tip of your nose and the respiratory system
In humans, the nose is the only part of the respiratory system…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/a/e/7/ae7b9928e8_71945_nose.jpg ” data-url=”https://news.google.com/health/definitions/human-body-nose-14731/” data-more=”Read More”> in an article published in by an international team of researchers led by members of Nagoya University in Japan. These are some results obtained with the Japanese Subaru telescope, in Hawaii, within the framework of the research campaign of the (HSC), in combination with other observations obtained by the of The European Space Agency is Europe’s gateway to space. Its mission is to shape European space capability development activities and make…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/0/9/f/ 09f0b05e28_50034401_logo -esa-fs .jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/universe-esa-2466/” data-more=”Read more”> in the form of his famous map of , the oldest light in the The history of the universe begins about 13.7 billion years ago in an extremely dense and hot soup. The laws of physics like us…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/1/5/5/1557798396_80921_universe.jpg” data-url= “https : //news.google.com/sciences/definitions/astronomy-universe-15239/” data-more=”Read more”> observable, emitted about 380,000 after the in a few thousand years.
Dark matter that distorts the images of galaxies
Let us also remember what
The action of spreading to achieve a uniform state; result of this action. In the case of light, the reflection, in all directions, of…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/4/6/8/4686984e83_50034253_reflexion -fuse- en.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-diffusion-1020/” data-more=”Read more”> until today. It is an interesting probe of the structures of the Universe. Thus, if we succeed in this reconstruction, Planck would become an autonomous experiment sensitive to the entire evolution of the Universe, from the primordial universe of the time of the last diffusion to us. “.
The surface of the last scattering is that of a fictitious sphere surrounding any observer in theobservable and showing you the regions from which the The name photon comes from the Greek and means “light”. In fact, the photon transmits the electromagnetic interaction, light being an example of an electromagnetic wave.” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-photon-3500/” data- more= “Read definition”> fossil radiation when the observable Universe became transparent because its density became so low that photons from that time could then travel without colliding with charged particles that would scatter them over great distances.
The evoked gravitational lensing effect, in this case the so-called weak lensing effect or even gravitational shear, is an effect of deflection of light rays by a gravitational field that leads to the deformation of the initial image of a galaxy by a large mass interposed between this galaxy and an observer. We can deduce from the warp the mass of the body that produces it, so measuring gravitational lensing makes it possible to probe mass distributions in the observable cosmos, including masses of dark matter that itself does not radiate.
In a vacuum, light usually travels in a straight line. But in a space warped by a massive celestial body, such as a galaxy, this trajectory is deflected! Thus, a light source located behind a galaxy has an apparent position different from its real position: this is the phenomenon of gravitational mirage. This video originates from the web documentary “ the odyssey of light (http://www.odysseedelalumiere.fr/comp…) and has been integrated into the web documentary ” Embark with the dark matter (lamatierenoire.fr). © CEA-Animea
This effect has been used to estimate the presence and changes in the distribution of dark matter up to about 8 to 10 billion years ago. As Laurence Perotto also explained to us, the weak gravitational lensing effects produced byand the galaxies in the foreground of the last scattering surface contaminate the study of the fossil radiation and it is necessary to somehow subtract this noise from the signal to return to the primitive state of the fossil radiation. This makes it possible, in particular, to trace the mythical primitive polarization of fossil radiation. Enhancement of these modes would convincingly demonstrate the existence of a vertiginous inflationary phase of the expansion of space during the Big Bang.
Dark matter clumps that have been structured since the Big Bang
But, as the cosmologist had commented in the extract of her file that we have provided, the measurement of the weak gravitational lensing effect could in theory inform us about the presence and the variable characteristics in time and space of the dark matter from the appearance of the first galaxies until today using fossil radiation.
The Japanese-led team managed to make just such observations beyond 8 billion years by measuring the effects of the galaxies detected with the HSC on the Planck background radiation measurements. We hadn’t gone further before because the galaxies, whose images were distorted by gravitation, were too faint to make valid measurements.
But now researchers can go back some 12 billion years in the observable cosmos.
Surprisingly, although yet to be confirmed, the size characteristics of dark matter concentrations between 8 and 12 billion years ago do not seem to follow the predictions of thedark matter density fluctuations during this period appear weaker than expected.
one of the authors of the discovery and professor of theCosmic Ray Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, does not hesitate to explain: ” Our conclusion is still uncertain. But if true, that would suggest that the entire model is flawed as you go back in time. It’s exciting because if the result holds after reducing uncertainties, it could suggest an improvement in the model that could provide the nature of dark matter itself. »
With this goal in mind, cosmologists still need to increase theand the precision of the available data, which they will soon be able to do with the launch of the Vera C. Rubin Observatory, previously called the Observatory .
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