The first building without heating, air conditioning and forced ventilation was built in Austria / Illustration: RE.
In 2013, the Austrian architect Dietmar Eberle built a building in his country without heating, without air conditioning and without mechanical ventilation. However, the occupants live there pleasantly as the inside temperature ranges from 22 to 26 degrees throughout the year. An identical building has since been erected in Switzerland. In France, the city of Lyon is developing a similar project in the Confluence district, along the Rhône. This will be the first construction of this type in France.
The idea of building a building that does not consume energy for heating, air conditioning and ventilation may seem unusual, even utopian. Nevertheless, Dietmar Eberle I believed it. This architect has dedicated several decades of research to his project, but the results are conclusive.
Even in the absence of heating and air conditioning and thanks to the bio-based building materials and insulation used, the building he designed in Lustenau in Austria to establish its company headquarters there, it is able to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature of between 22 and 26 °C throughout the year. Whether it’s 30 or -10 degrees outside. Hence the name of the concept of him, baptized ” 2226 “.
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Simple and sustainable buildings to avoid obsolescence
With your architecture studio baumschlager-eberle », this visionary wants to design buildings simple, ecological and sustainable. ” Although today’s buildings require less and less energy to provide their occupants with the expected comfort, an increasing proportion of the budget is devoted to technical equipment such as heating and air conditioning. The cost of its conservation and maintenance is also increasing. “, he points out. It is a kind of programmed obsolescence, explains Dietmar Eberle” because if the structure of the building has a useful life of at least 80 years, its equipment becomes obsolete after less than 20 years “.
To maintain a pleasant temperature in all rooms, without any technical equipment, the building has a high thermal inertia. The exterior walls, made of masonry with terracotta ashlars, are 80 cm thick. The necessary heat gains come primarily from occupants, office automation equipment, and solar gains through bay windows.
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Soon a similar building in Lyon
Following the success of the Austrian project, a second building 2226 was born in 2018, in Emmen, Switzerland. Since then, the idea has spread throughout the world and the concept has also been applied to the residential sector, with a building made up of apartments without heating or air conditioning, also built in Austria.
In France, the first building of this type, also designed by Dietmar Eberle, will be built soon in Lyon, in the Confluence district, and it will also be for housing. Its production was in charge of the group Nexity, who decided to call it Essential.
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High thermal inertia
Like its predecessors, the building will take a simple form and use “natural” materials capable of regulating temperature. The walls will also have a thickness of about 80 cm, which will provide the construction with a strong thermal inertia, capable of storing heat or cold to release it when necessary.
However, the building will not be free of any technology. Sophisticated software controlled regulation will balance the temperature and fresh air supply throughout the building. In particular, it will automatically control the opening of certain windows.
According to our information, the site should be launched in 2023 and completed in 2025.
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