La vague créée par l’éruption du Hunga Tonga était 9 fois plus haute que celle du séisme de Fukushima

La vague de tsunami générée par l'explosion du volcan Hunga Tonga aurait initialement mesuré 90 mètres de haut. © Oscar Ävalos, Unsplash

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[EN VIDÉO] Kézako: the secrets of the creation of tsunamis
Tsunamis are among the most destructive natural disasters. These waves, which can reach thirty meters in height, hit the shores with unstoppable force. Unisciel and the University of Lille 1 reveal to us, with the Kézako program, the secrets of the creation of this phenomenon.

Last January, the underwater volcano of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai It exploded violently in the Pacific Ocean, causing a tsunami that spread rapidly through all the oceans of the globe. Considered one of the most violent eruptions of the century, this event stands out above all for the amount of scientific information collected. The analysis of the data thus made it possible to study in detail the mechanism of origin of this powerful tsunami and its characteristics.

Therefore, it seemed that the wave propagated at a speed that had a direction and intensity and was represented by a vector, the velocity vector. Relative velocity is the velocity of one body with respect to another or with respect to a frame.” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/3/1/ 9/ 319daf63f4_77541_leibniz-dp .jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-velocity-324/” data-more=”Read definition”>speed Registration thanks to the acoustic gravity waves generated by the explosion. A resonance phenomenon in physics.
This definition derives from the one that physicists give to this term. For them, the phenomenon…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/2/4/c/24c2c6553e_94983_resonance.jpg” data-url=”https:/ /news.google.com/science/definitions/physics-resonance-4079/” data-more=”Read more”>resonance it would have made it possible to amplify the tsunami and make the devastating wave travel much faster than the classic tsunamis produced during When this collapse refers to coherent rocks, we can also speak of a rockfall.
The result of this…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences.com/buildsv6/images/midioriginal/f/6/7/f678fd3677_50035322_eboulement-cmic-blog-cc-nc-2.jpg ” data-url=”https://news.google.com/planet/definitions/sustainable-development-landfall-6515/” data-more=”Read More”>collapses slopes of volcanoes or earthquake.

A wave initially 90 meters high.

But the peculiarity of this tsunami does not stop there. According to a recent study, the wave would have initially reached a height of 90 meters, approximately nine times the height of the tsunami that hit the coast of Japan in 2011 and produced the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima power plant. This latest tsunami was caused by a very powerful earthquake along the Japanese coast. Let us remember that this event is one of the largest tsunamis in recent decades, with the one that hit Chile in 1960. However, its initial height was estimated at about ten meters, small waves compared to those generated during the eruption of Hunga Tonga -Hunga Ha. ‘apai.

The 2011 and 1960 tsunamis, however, were much more devastating and deadly. More than 18,000 died after the 2011 tsunami, while the Hunga Tonga tsunami fortunately only left a few people missing. To explain this difference, it is necessary to take into account several parameters, which will influence the height of the wave when it reaches the shore. There is, of course, the distance between the source of the tsunami and land, the morphology the bottom and the coast, but also other factors, such as the melting point of water, that is, the temperature at which ice melts…” data-image=”https://cdn .futura-sciences. com /buildsv6/images/midioriginal/7/d/0/7d0df59f3c_82086_fusion.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/sciences/definitions/physics-fusion-15305/” data -more=”Read more “>fusion several waves (which appears to have been the case in 2011). As it approaches the coast, a tsunami wave can be attenuated or amplified.

The Hunga Tonga volcano is fortunately located about 70 kilometers from the Tonga Islands. This is certainly what made it possible to avoid a terrible catastrophe. The maximum height measured at the ribs was just under 1.50 meters. Enough, however, to cause significant damage.

Tsunami risk: Underwater volcanoes also need to be monitored

Scientists, however, are giving the bell in construction.
In construction, a bell, also called a hammer, is a driving device used to drive piles or piles during the installation of…” data-image=”https://cdn.futura-sciences. com/buildsv6/images/ midioriginal/c/c/1/cc1179ee54_50037609_haussprechanlage-aussen-02.jpg” data-url=”https://news.google.com/maison/definitions/maison-sonnette-10916/” data- more=”Read more” >door bell alarm. Because if the seismic zones historically generating tsunamis are now under close surveillance, in particular with the development of increasingly earlier warning systems, the submarine volcanoes are much less monitored. And this recent event reminds us that they pose as serious a threat, if not more so, than major earthquakes. If Hunga Tonga had been located close to the coast, as is the case with many active submarine volcanoes, the situation could have been extremely dramatic.

The results, published in the journal Ocean Engineering, show the importance and urgency of developing effective tsunami warning systems, which allow the inhabitants of the coasts likely to be devastated by waves several tens of meters high to evacuate as soon as possible. At the same time, tracking volcanic activity of underwater volcanoes the most dangerous must be strengthened, or even implemented.

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